Wheelright. These are deposited in the Museum of Navajo Cere-
monial Art, at Santa Fe.

Natalie Curtis, in her The Indians Book, has recorded many of the
songs of New Mexico's Pueblo Indians, while composers like Thurlow
Lieurance, Charles Wakefield Cadman, Jean Jeancon, and others have
recorded some melodies, transposing them to fit our musical scale, but
in the process losing much of the Indian characteristics.

There remains much still to be done to preserve for future genera-
tions this valuable music, not alone for the Indian, but also as a point
of departure for aesthetic achievements in the field of true American


Spanish music was first introduced when Cortés came to the Ameri-
can continent in 1519, bringing with him the folk songs of the mother
country, where for centuries trovadores and juglares had been compos-
ing and singing romances or ballads built around the lives of their
heroes, or dealing with subjects of love, religion, or war.

The Spanish ballad of the sixteenth century used sixteen syllables
to a verse and was usually assonated instead of rhymed. The sixteen-
syllable verses were unpliable, so they eventually were broken down
into octosyllabic meter which, with greater variety of themes, was
employed in a subsequent composition known as the décima. This
décima consisted of forty-four lines, a four-line introduction followed
by four stanzas of ten lines each, with the first line of the introduction
becoming the last line of the first stanza, the second line of the intro-
duction becoming the last line of the second stanza, and so on. This
stanzaic form was first used by Lope de Vega in Spain and is still
recited as poetry in New Mexico, though not so frequently sung.

As the spirit of conquest moved the Spaniards on to new lands,
their songs went with them, Coronado and his men bringing them into
New Mexico. But it was not until the first colonizing expedition of
Juan de Oñate, in 1598, that they became a part of New Mexican
culture. Since the Spanish expeditions were made for the glory of
God, as well as the acquisition of land and wealth for the Crown, the
Franciscan missionaries were a vital part and, in some instances, the
dominating force of each expedition. Among these missionaries, who
had been well trained in letters and in the arts, were found some musi-
cians of ability, and it is to them that credit for the introduction of
European music in the New World must be given.

From Spanish historical documents we find that the first music
teacher was Fray Cristóbal de Quiñones. He is credited with having
brought the first organ into what is now the United States; he installed
an organ in the chapel of the monastery at San Felipe Pueblo and