by Governor Oterrain retreating to El Paso. Though most of them were set-
tled by him at the present Indian village of Isleta del Sur about 18 miles
southeast of El Paso, a few who were too old or too ill to continue the journey
settled here and were the founders of Tortugas.
Brazito School House (L), 179.9 m., marks the site of the only
Mexican War battle that occurred on New Mexico soil. After United
States troops under Colonel Doniphan had defeated a force here under
General Ponce de León on Christmas Day, 1845, Colonel Doniphan's
march into Mexico was without opposition.
In Conklings Cave near MESQUITE, 182 m. (2,430 alt., 195
pop.), at the southern end of the ORGAN MOUNTAINS, bones of
ancient sloths, camels, and cave bears have been found.
At the Registration Station (all trucks must stop), 193.5 m., out-
of-state trucks pay a road tax and tourists whose cars are not properly
licensed must buy license plates.
In ANTHONY, 194.8 m., US 85 crosses the Texas Line, 20 miles
north of El Paso, Texas.
Caballo—Hillsboro—Santa Rita—Junction with US 260; NM 180.
Two-lane, graveled roadbed.
Route crosses a spur of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Santa Rita.
Accommodations in principal towns; tourist camps, gas stations frequent.
This route is up from the Rio Grande Valley and across the Black
Range with its exceptionally fine panoramas, hunting, and fishing, past
the very large open-pit copper mines at Santa Rita that are visible from
the road, and on to Silver City, largest town in this area. Parts of the
road are through Gila National Forest, which, like the rest of the route,
was the camping and hunting ground of the Gila Apache and is rich
in Indian, mining, and historical lore of the frontier. The Mogollón
Range, beyond Silver City, has many pueblo and cliff dwelling sites of
pre-Columbian days, as well as habitations of a more recent period, and
is an exciting region for the archeologist; and no less interesting to the
hunter and fisherman who must pack in to reach the best spots. There
are many places where pack trips into the areas inaccessible by auto-
mobile can be arranged, especially in the Gila Wilderness, which is
being kept primitive.
From CABALLO, 0 m. (76 pop.), at a junction with US 85, 15
miles south of Hot Springs (see Tour 1c), NM 180 runs west over a