(The New World pre-history dates have been determined by tree-ring
?-300 A.D. Basket Maker II: A semi-nomadic, pre-Pueblo people who
inhabited the Southwest at the beginning of the Christian era. First
agriculturists in New Mexico; excelling in basket weaving.
300-700 Basket Maker III: First truly sedentary people in New Mex-
ico; built crude slab houses; cultivated corn, squash, beans, and
tobacco; invented pottery in the Southwest.
700-900 Pueblo I: A roundheaded people, believed to have come from
the Northwest, who conquered and absorbed the earlier Basket
Maker people and their culture; introduced horizontal masonry,
the bow and arrow, and developed pottery.
900-1150 Pueblo II: Sometimes called the developmental period; was a
growth of the Pueblo I culture. The unit type house became the
small village or group dwelling.
1150-1350 Pueblo III: The classic or great period of Pueblo culture.
1350-1700 Pueblo IV: The maximum expansion of Pueblo culture in
1700- Pueblo V: Modern Pueblo.
NEW MEXICO UNDER SPAIN
1528-1531 First rumors of inhabited cities in the north gained from an
Indian in possession of Nufto de Guzman, whose expedition fails to
discover the cities, but explores country as far north as Culiacan,
which he founded.
1536 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, en route to New Spain from east
Texas, passed through New Mexico. Indians farther south tell him
of northern pueblos.
1539 In May, Fray Marcos de Niza, with the Negro Moor Estevan, dis-
covers the "Seven Cities" of Cibola (Zuni); takes formal possession
for Spain of region embracing present New Mexico.
1540 February 23, Coronado's expedition leaves Compostela to conquer
Cibola. He reaches region July 7, captures pueblo of Hawikuh;
winters at Tiguex, near Bernalillo.
1541 April 23, leaving Tiguex, Coronado crosses buffalo plains to Quivira
(Kansas-Nebraska border) ; returns to Tiguex for second winter.
1542 In spring, Coronado and army return to New Spain.